In ancient Khemit (EGYPT) , ATUM was one of the first Masters of Egyptian mythology, associated with creation and the Great Ennead (nine divine Masters) of Heliopolis, the city of the Sun. His name means completion, ultimacy and continuity.
ATUM was the chief Master in the Great Ennead of Heliopolis. This place of primacy in early times is mentioned in the Pyramid Texts, where he receives more attention than many other Masters combined.
In his mythological accounts, ATUM was seen as the solitary, primordial living being, having arisen by his own force from the chaotic waters of Nun. Once he emerged onto the primordial mound (benben), he took it upon himself to create the cosmos - personalized as Shu (air) and Tefnut (moisture) and their children Geb (earth) and Nut (sky).
In ancient Khemit those myths were metaphorical and had deeper meanings which in ATUM's case was his ability to bring order from chaos using his own forces and skills in educating the world in an important transitioning time from disorder and chaos into balance and order. In a global transformation like this, teachings are a necessity in order for humanity to evolve and adapt to the new system after long times of ignorance and confusion. ATUM is consider to be the best teacher of all times, as he raised up from chaos to educate the new generations.
ATUM's central place was the ancient city of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, which is located north of Cairo. The 120-ton obelisk of the Temple of Re-ATUM still stands. The hieroglyphic name for the obelisk is Luna, which means pillar. Furthermore the city was once known as the city of the pillars. Luna was designed to catch the rays of the sun at dawn, representing the creation of ATUM. It also stands for the world, emerging from the original mound out of the waters, representing the first rays of light coming after long times of darkness.
Since this location was considered the place of the origins of creation, it became the main learning center in Khemit. Priests congregated in Heliopolis to study religious history and philosophy as well as famous greek philosophers and thinkers as it was a place of upmost importance for every seeker worldwide.
As a primordial Master, ATUM played an important role in the legitimation of the Rulers of ancient Khemit, In artworks, ATUM was most often depicted as an enthroned king, wearing the dual crown that represented rulership of Upper and Lower Egypt. When characterized as the setting sun, he was often depicted in a similar manner. When envisioned as an animal, ATUM took the form of a serpent, eel (thought to be primordial entities), a cat or mongoose (who prey upon serpents,here understood as forces of chaos).
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